Issue 01: Interview

Iñaki Ábalos | Continuity in a Cross-Cultural Practice

对话Iñaki Ábalos:跨文化实践中的“连续性”

Iñaki Ábalos is a Ph.D. in Architecture and Chaired Professor of Architectural Design at the ETSAM since 2002. He was Kenzo Tange Professor (2009) at GSD Harvard University, RIBA International Fellowship 2009 (Royal Institute of British Architects). Professor in Residence in Architecture (2012-2017), and Former Chair of the Department of Architecture at Harvard University Graduate School of Design (2013-2016). He was appointed “Buell Book Fellow” and “Visiting Professor” at Columbia University (New York, 1995), “Diploma Unit Master” at the Architectural Association (London, 1998-2000) and “Professeur Invite“in the EPF Lausanne 1998. He was “Jean Labatute Professor” at the University of Princeton (New Jersey, 2004-2007),“Visiting Professor” at Cornell University (Ithaca, 2007-2008), and Professor at BIArch (Barcelona, 2010-2012).

Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+ is an international architecture office directed by Iñaki Ábalos and Renata Sentkiewicz.
The projects and built work of Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+ are internationally recognized, have been subject of 18 individual exhibitions and many collective exhibitions in the most prestigious centres: GSD Harvard, AA-London, Pavillon de l’arsenale-Paris, MoMA- NYC (MoMA has exhibited 5 built works in three different exhibitions: Light construction, ON Site, Groundswell) . This prestige also reflects in the 45 awards received (25 of them first prizes) in architecture competitions. Another 46 awards have been given to different research and design activities, 20 of them to Built Works. Their professional work has been collected in 11 monographs and their theoretical work has been compiled through 14 books. Critic William Curtis has chosen one work of the firm, the Pavilion in the Retiro Park, as one of the three best works built in Spain during the last 30 years.

Iñaki Ábalos © Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+

Iñaki Ábalos & Renata Sentkiewicz  © Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+

“I feel a kind of American culture of efficient, the organization of the space, but the efficient in the capitalist mode includes great construction systems, great benefits, and at first sight very attractive icons, shopping malls, and spaces in the last and long term. ”

ChinaGSD: As a European architect, you have done a lot of urban design and public space practice in China over the past decade, what do you think are the similarities and differences between Chinese public space and European public space?


Iñaki: It's a good question to begin with. I have to say that I have missed the feelings about the relationship of public space in European countries and in China. Because in somehow I have to say it depends on if we talk about traditional Chinese architecture and cities or contemporary.  My experience in china is very clear. When I'm in all countries and villages, in all parts of Shanghai, also in the fringe, the district or whatever, I really feel in European public space and I see that Chinese people feel OK there, especially in Shanghai. It’s probably the most international and best city that I know. But it was very similar when you go to Beijing or Shenzhen or other cities, the density, the dimensions, the activities on the ground floor etc. can be more dense or more intense, but there are very similar, I feel really comfortable and I know this territory somehow, because although it not the same, it is familiar for me.

When I visited the new districts and the mega blocks, etc, I really feel that there is a huge cultural change in the methodology. Somehow the efficiency of American cities has invaded the methodologies in these new territories in China. What I see the new territories being with has a huge change. Everything in cities is growing at an incredible speed. So when I visit these cities, I really feel in the United States. I feel a kind of American culture of efficient, the organization of the space, but the efficient in the capitalist mode includes great construction systems, great benefits, and at first sight very attractive icons, shopping malls, and spaces in the last and long term.



The scale in China has multiplied so much as the American. I don't know if this mythology will survive and be able to create a kind of Chinese mode or the Chinese form of doing things. For me, I don't want to look like nostalgic. I don't mean that the other was better than this. I know that changes are absolutely necessary. I mean many other things like the scale, nation, the needs of cities have changed dramatically. So these changes of scale, technology have a lot of good reasons to be there.

But at the same time I feel that the Chinese culture is much more European than America, like the Chinese way to use public space, it’s not only old man and young kids; everyone is much more similar to a European city or the Mediterranean city, than an American city in the middle of nowhere. That's my doubt, it`s a question mark.



“...there is a kind of automatic and way to really give you some clues. This means for us, we don't understand public spaces in some abstraction; we understand it in very physically, in a very social way. We try to really put together knowledge of different disciplines that can inform about design, not only to try to avoid big mistakes. ”

ChinaGSD: A lot of your practice is projects that fall somewhere between architecture and landscape. What are the similarities and differences in the topics and agendas for creating public space? Could an example of (Chinese) practice be given to illustrate this?


Iñaki: We have been able to design and build some our projects in China, especially in Shanghai and the areas around. We have defended a kind of thermodynamic agenda in architecture. What it means is that we are not very technological. What I mean is that thermodynamic means everything is related. The shadow of a tree and the reflection of a glass in the street, every single detail can create a difference in the way we use the space. We have studied in some cities and in some streets, why one side of the street is commercially very active and the other has never had good business there and all of them fail and change every six months.

There is always a way the climate wind, shallow smell, whatever you need, all the facts that involve in the environment of the public space are actively sending messages to you as a user of public space, saying “Go to the left, don't go to the right. Go under the shadow, be careful with this side that is dark and maybe is more dangerous or whatever. So there is a kind of automatic and way to really give you some clues. This means for us, we don't understand public spaces in some abstraction; we understand it in very physically, in a very social way. We try to really put together knowledge of different disciplines that can inform about design, not only to try to avoid big mistakes. So thermodynamic tells you how things will be in terms of comfort. The environmental comfort is not only about climate or temperature or humidity, it's more about how night and day, how reflection of buildings that are just put in there, their sun gains into the street and are affecting you etc. I think this is interesting thing.



The other thing for in public spaces very important is continuity, which is very simple. More and more we are interested in using the city as a sports field, where we can run, we can work, we can obviously enjoy with our family wherever, but a lot of people nowadays early in the morning walk the city one hour or two hours or 40 minutes. When the sun goes down, it is the very same.

And this area of the continuity for me, it's every time you have in your mental space, every time you have a kind of abstraction, a kind of you have to go up in the stairs because there's a highway very crazy and then you have to go down. That is super frustrating. I you can do it once twice, but sooner or later, you will find another way to go around with avoiding this and it will change your route.



The Flying Spine - Iñaki Ábalos & Renata Sentkiewicz  © Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+

The Flying Spine  © ZYArch Photography

So that I mean the community is very important and for example, there is an example that you mentioned and which is The Flying Spine, very close to the district of airport of Shanghai, a new Park that is being and made by parts and all the parts of themselves are interesting, but I'm not so well connected as in a conventional, traditional and 18th Century park, like Central Park in New York for sample, they have to make there many highways and trains, obstructions, and we were asked to produce exactly what we call the Flying Spine, a kind of connector for all the elements and when this park finished and I think it's nice, but I think more than that, it is very efficient.

You see flying and you can connect. Whatever it happens that this park allows your views to go from one point to very long. Its width is not that much long, it’s about 1 and, the length is like 6 kilometers. So it's really a good park to walk where you can ride bicycle or to run. So for us, it was very important to not just allow people enjoying the view from above to the park, a beautiful fount of water, etc, but a place more close people to stand, maybe to exercise or maybe to just enjoy the view or have a sandwich or whatever you want to do. So at the same time, we didn't want to make it a highway, to go to run for kilometers, but a space that every 200-300 meters you can stop and exercise, you make whatever your part of the body or if you go with your children or you sit down and explain what is the wasteland of the southern part of the park.

So I think that this is a kind of response to your question. So continuity thermodynamics and again, continuity that I mean straight means kind of a flexible way to move and to enjoy it. What you have seen when you are walking into.




“Icons can be a interesting thing but somehow are not the only thing that are architectures, you have to really create spaces that are comfortable that people want to go there, that they enjoy going there and they have something to do when they are there.”

ChinaGSD: What do you think is the relationship between the form of public space and local culture? How did you respond to the local culture in the context of Chinese culture?


Zhuhai Huafa Contemporary Art Museum Design Scheme - Iñaki Ábalos & Renata Sentkiewicz  © Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+

Iñaki: Give you some clues, I might respond to this with some examples, probably you remember we had won in China the first prize for a competition in Zhuhai. I’d say now, this museum in Zhuhai can exactly explain the way Renata and I understand this.

There's a huge bridge from Hong Kong to Macao-Zhuhai,  Zhuhai is the Chinese part, Macao is the importance in colony, etc. And the longest reaches can come from Hong Kong to this point where to Zhuhai and Macao. At this point, in the side of Zhuhai, we were winning a competition of a museum that could somehow celebrate the bridge, but also could let, this was explained by the mayor to us in a very nice image, people drive or come from Hong Kong to Macao, and instead of just looking to Macao, they could have a view on the beautiful coast of Zhuhai. Because Macao is a super kind of Las Vegas, in versus Zhuhai is some more Mediterranean, I would say beautiful cost. There is a difference but there are also have beautiful things.

I think it was a very kind of interesting proposal for us, but the idea was not only to makes icons. Icons can be a interesting thing but somehow are not the only thing that are architectures, you have to really create spaces that are comfortable that people want to go there, that they enjoy going there and they have something to do when they are there.




Zhuhai Huafa Contemporary Art Museum Model © Si Fang Qi Yi Architectural Model Co., Ltd

Zhuhai Huafa Contemporary Art Museum Rendering © Jin Shang Animation

The humid tropical climate, we are in front of the sea, so it was really humid, and we wanted to create a kind of museum, that have patios, outside spaces could be used not just to see paintings, as those characters of public activities, but a place is around a series of patios, and at the same time the roof was a modeling in literary, in order to create a panoramic views at the same time.

Zhuhai is one of the most beautiful cities I have ever seen in China. These constructions are really beautiful, there are carefully detailed in every corner from the airport the center of the city.

So it's quite interesting. The patio had this kind of strength. Let's say trees are a type of umbrella, it is a kind of trees that are giving shadow, but also collecting the humidity and consuming water, hot water and humidity to cold water. So they could refresh and deeply unify the environment of the patio.

Somehow for us, at the same time it was an iconic demand that we had to respond to. And we responded with this, let's say it dramatic and very rhetoric trees. At the same time, they were not just images like in many economies they were machines. They were a kind of the air conditioning system for outdoor spaces that instead of being just a machine making noise, it's a beautiful instructor that is mimicking nature, and at the same time is it could be really efficient, and by the moment this is a response that we have given.




同时,对于我们来说,我们也需要达成对露台环境标志性设计的诉求。而这些露台上的梦幻且极具装饰性的“树”,就是我们给予的答复。但与此同时, 他们并不是万千经济体中机械化的美学剪影。他们是一种室外的空气净化系统,而不是一个只会发出噪音的机器。他们是仿生自然的美观引领者,也同时是高效节能的。这就是当下我们给出的答复。

Zhuhai Huafa Contemporary Art Museum in Construction  - Iñaki Ábalos & Renata Sentkiewicz  © Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+

It was constructed partially, and now the governor is a different one and it has been changed from a local museum to a national museum. But it has to be in the stop at the same time the construction. So we are crossing our fingers and waiting to the moment when it could be finished. In the day, more than 50% of the mass of the building is made.

Anyway, this is a good example for me to know how do we think that in the Chinese culture we can act in the Chinese culture at the same time responding to the demands of some contemporary iconic, the strength of images and the same time being serious about the issues that architecture, a traditional architecture and contemporary architecture should be given to the public, as I meant, comfort, pleasant and shadows, beautiful, let's say, places where to look to the surroundings. All these things that really give you some of attraction and your families the need of coming back every year, this kind of things not every week, but at least when your kids are growing and it is different to be submission when you are 4 years and then you have 7 years when you're 20 years or maybe 15. And then I think that is important that this is place can be attracted for a kid and for someone that is an adult.



“At the same time, we were able to create a kind of very conventional and somehow a religious spaces that could give you the image of religious space, at the same time it had this kind of more funny, more easy way to enter into the church or to be around, which is going up to the roof and going down and entering inside, etc.”

ChinaGSD: Monumental architecture is an important bearer of public activities. Churches from the West are an import to China, and traditionally monumental Chinese public spaces, such as temples and ancestral shrines, have their own unique spatial prototypes and paradigms. How did you position this public space in your design for the New Bund Church? And how does it work? What difficulties and challenges have been overcome?


New Bund District Church © ZYArch Photography

Iñaki: Again, it was another curious commission. The built church is new and is close to the airport of Shanghai, and it`s in an international business district for people from European or other countries. So there are confidence in coming for business or whatever and the authorities wanted to create a kind of an environment that they could feel well-received, having schools that are European, Christian churches, whatever, which is a very curious thing. I know the difficulties of the Christian churches in China. I'm in the political issues, etc.

So this church is interesting because of this kind of attempting of, I would say, “let's behave all of us properly, we want you to be happy here.” And the authorities of the Pudong district were a very fond of architecture.  And they had ordered an architect who was from Australia or New Zealand, they made a first idea of a church, but it was horrible. It looks exactly the opposite; it likes a house for a monster. It looks really unfortunate in Shanghai. And the authorities said no way, we cannot do this because the effect. We cannot invest in this because the affect will be exactly opposite to the welcoming of people.

Someone there around the authorities seen the Pudong district said why don't you call those European? Renata is Polish, I am Spanish, and Spain is the most catholic and the most Christian countries in Europe, probably they will know how to manage the situation. And then they asked us if we were able to propose. I said Ok, I mean why not?





New Bund District Church © ZYArch Photography

We began to think about the place; compared to the whole New Bund area it is super small. I think it was an interesting point there; it is in a park at side of a river in the Shanghai. It is a beautiful and really well finished park. And so it's an entrance, and it’s a very narrow plot because underground the metro line passes very close to the land, so it was a kind of spaghetti shape. We studied carefully the ugly project of the previous architects, trying to understand why the church authorities like it. So we wanted to balance the needs of these people, the people that will be running the church, and the authorities in need of some image.

This was the key for us, because they were really confronted; they were really in a bad situation. So if we don't give both something, we will be killed, nothing will be happen.

Somehow we were able to accept the scheme; a functional scheme was not that bad. It was divided in two parts; in some part the things are most religious. I would say why don't we make the entrance to the park between both parts and we create a kind of continuity among both and with the park. The main idea was to connect everything and to use a stair that goes up to the roof, and the roof as a connector with the park and the connector of the two parts.




New Bund District Church © ZYArch Photography

We said, many of the most famous churches in Europe, I mean, the Milan cathedral that you can go up and see the whole city of Milan in Italy, It's a beautiful roof, or the Notre dame in Paris where you have the caracole and you have all the monsters, it's very well known. Why don't we make this a kind of green roof and extension of the park with a smaller auditorium where weddings or other ceremonies could happen in good weather? And the idea came along and we drew the stair and the continuity of the roof. When we had the meeting presenting with both authorities and the church authorities, I was explaining this in showing images, I saw the faces of both the people of the church and the authorities are smiling and said “Okay, that's it.”

At the same time, we were able to create a kind of very conventional and somehow a religious spaces that could give you the image of religious space, at the same time it had this kind of more funny, more easy way to enter into the church or to be around, which is going up to the roof and going down and entering inside, etc.

Then the other thing that was interesting for us was the space itself, the interior space. I mean, churches from very long times ago have to have a kind of idea of, what I think the real religious space is, how do you feel or want to feel inside the space that is where you communicate with the spiritual goddess or spiritual ideas.

It was very narrow. I know this; we really know the Christian religion and rituals. It was too narrow to have a kind of a significant space, at the same time, it needed to have, like almost 1500 people room. So it was very big. This may depend on hybrid of a liner likes a gothic space that is very linear, very longitudinal, and a kind of auditorium with messoning, a half of a messoning, is an L shape messoning that increases the amount of people that can be there, but also use a kind of sensation of being in an auditorium. Because a lot of time in churches you sing or people sing and so it has the ritual, it's very musical. So we wanted it to be a kind of review on a traditional auditorium space. It works, although it could work better acoustically because we couldn't really finalize what we wanted to do, because of the game of money issues, but it really works with the people of atelier, it is really important for the acoustics.





New Bund District Church © ZYArch Photography

This is still being tested. It's given to the authorities of the church, but the people in the neighborhood still haven’t entered to live there, so they are testing for the new incomers, the European and American wherever they will come from, the whole thing will enter into real activity, so we cross fingers.

We are very happy with this church, it was very cheap and at the same time very monumental and very attractive, new people when they go there, they want to enter there, they want to make them a part of this, it is such a monumental thing, it is exactly positive, it is inviting you to visit.


我们对这个教堂很满意,它造价低廉但又不失纪念性,非常有吸引力。每当有新的人们去到那里, 便有进入和融入建筑的愿望——如此积极而富于纪念性, 它始终在向你发出邀请。

“I think that there is a kind of need of alternatives. And for me this alternative can come from a more serious way to the city, a more technical weight and sensitivity, being efficient, being graduating way, it likes a symphony, a symphony can have a melody, it can have a fortissimo in one moment, you cannot have fortissimo in every single five second because it's noise.”

ChinaGSD: As China's urbanization process slows down, urban construction begins to shift from incremental to stock. New commercial complexes, cultural landmarks and other projects are decreasing, the transformation of small urban spaces into acupuncture and old industrial sites are increasing, and community services are becoming more accessible. In this new practice context, what do you think the characteristics of public space should be? You also won the bid for the Yangpu Bridge Park project along with Shanghai's urban renewal process. How does the design present the core concept of publicans that you just mentioned? Which aspects to focus on?

随着中国城市化进程的放缓,城市开始从增量建设向存量建设转型。新的商业综合体和文化地标等项目正在减少,小微尺度的城市空间针灸和老工业场所的转型正在增加,社区服务变得更加易得。在这种新的实践语境下,您认为公共空间的特征应该是什么? 您还赢得了上海城市更新进程中杨浦大桥公园项目的竞标,这个设计如何体现您刚才提到的公共性的核心概念?我们应该关注哪些方面?

Iñaki:  Whatever was the case, everything was iconic. Now everything is all industrial. It’s too radical. It’s really like too drastic. I remember the President talked about normality and criticizing architectures that were too iconic, and honestly I agree with this critic but at the same time, I think that the interpretation of this critique of the President was too radical and too naïve. He says from hundred percent to no percent at all, it could be 40 or 30% or whatever. It’s too dramatic and there is no need, I think that the critical he says was serious. You can agree, you can make everything an icon, very single project and they should be in many cultures, not only in European countries.

There are the palaces, the religious or civil or whatever, and they all celebrate moments in history and they organize the city and you move around when you go through this to that. Now, in every single country you have something that is a kind of explosion of form that creates. One by one can be interesting in Instagram, and working in the city. They are really unfortunately and many of they are aggressive and there's no need for all shopping mall to have the shape of a dragon on eating you. It's too much, it’s too much, it is in express and it is inefficient.

Said that, I think that partially this is happening because, I don't know exactly why I am worried because there is a kind of obsession, a competitive obsession among the United States and China. They are competing both countries and it's very clear when you see the newspaper when Trump is saying and when your president is saying they are it's a kind of…go like this. And I think that there is a kind of need of alternatives. And for me this alternative can come from a more serious way to the city, a more technical weight and sensitivity, being efficient, being graduating way, it likes a symphony, a symphony can have a melody, it can have a fortissimo in one moment, you cannot have fortissimo in every single five second because it's noise.




Yangpu Bridge Area Riverside Development - Iñaki Ábalos & Renata Sentkiewicz  © Abalos+Sentkiewicz AS+

You can have an orchestra, a kind of a human symphony. And this is, I think that we have been trying to do. I mean I'm not so proud of myself as we have done both. But we in this Yangpu Bridge Area that we won the competition of 2 million m² of commercial space, a half million are of historical buildings. It is historical for China, they made in the seventies in the last century. That in Spain is contemporary, but in China is historical. There are beautiful buildings, the industrial buildings in the river front, and there are a ferry station, metro station, bus station, all kind of transportation means.

I think that it was very complex and we wanted to do orchestrate, we use some European paintings of violence to understand how to organize the complexity of fingers that we have ways to pay some problems, it was one of the clues that we found, and at the same time, we were thinking not only in proposition or Victorian in terms of the master plan, and we were also thinking again in thermodynamic terms as a series of five systems: the knowledge system that is on the new offices, the green system and the water system in the riverfront, the memory system of the all the testimony that was there, and how to create loops of interchanging them, and a kind of circularity that keeps them work.

So, all of these subsystems could benefit from being posted to all kind of spaces, and creates some degree of complexity without losing a sense of order or orientation. Once you enter, you can really understand very quickly how to work. We have won this competition. We are now with Atelier + and the Tongji University Design Institute, we are trying to organize many significant requires of so many authorities and so many departments. It’s coming.



因此所有的分支系统都可以在不同空间中相互辅助受益,在一定程度上创造了多功能多元素性,同时也保证了整体的结构的条理清晰秩序井然。待进入后,访客便可以非常快速地了解整体的运作方式。在这场竞赛中我们获得了胜利。我们正与Atelier +事务所以及同济大学设计学院共同合作,合并多方要求以及整合多部门。不久后便会呈现给大众。

Yangpu Bridge Area Riverside Development Rendering © Jin Shang Animation

We are trying to organize the main things through the green system, which is the central one and is the one that really express and give it continuity, and I think that it can be a kind of interesting response. I mean I hope that authorities understand that the point of this project is to make them a patrimony benefit from the green system, the green system from the intermodal transportation system, the intermodal transportation system from the knowledge system, the water system and all of them can create a kind of area of the city where these five systems create a kind of harmony, in the way they mix and create the scenario for the other.

Let's see, it's a very ambitious project, at least very beautiful. It's very close to the center of the city and in the river, under them one of the most important branches of the city. Let's say if the authority are able to understand that this is a key point of this. And I agree that this really ambitious, it can become a kind of equilibrate way to think about this kind of, let's say, contraposition, the restoration of the all against the iconic. It's exactly opposite of this. This goes with these merges quite well, and all the systems benefits from each other.



“This is a wonderful tale to understand the moment, that we will all have an new efficient engene and everyone on this hopeful world will get along with all the countries of the world and not only for the rich ones. It will take minutes to forget.”

ChinaGSD:  How does the epidemic we are facing right now change the relationship between people and cities? What will public space look like in the post-epidemic era? What role can architects play in this situation?


Iñaki: Let me put my crystal ball like a magician. I have to say a couple of things, not too many. First of all, I have to say that the skeptic about the all these profits of radical changes come in. Instagram is full of problems in this ways, of profits, of new ideas of cities and whatever. I know we have in Spain, I don’t know if you know, I have in Spain a place there is excavated the most ancient of humans in the world. I mean, there is a huge place where a lot of people were living millions and millions of years ago, and this kind of dialect of which is said paleontology. There is a Professor dedicated to this activity that is very famous in Europe, and few weeks ago he was asked the same you ask me. He said I know that a lot of people are inventing new idea and new proposals, but there forgot something very important is that the capacity of forgetting of the humankind is the most important quality for surviving. I mean the humans are able to survive because they forget immediately when they suffer.

It is in My God. It's true, I mean, the Second World War, a couple of days after millions of people were dead, Americans were making peace with Japanese people, and trying to reconstruct Europe with the Germans. And nowadays the big Germans and Japanese have a kind of a lot of development and they are integrated, and you have forgotten disasters as horrible as the Second World War. So this is why we survive. So it's history, it’s just another thing, it is completely indifferent.




Cortázar is one of very famous Argentine writer, passed away a couple of decades ago, who wrote wonderful text and there is one very famous that is “the Southern Highway”, the highway of the south. I don't know what it was in English, and this told about the traffic jam in Paris, in the south of Paris. A traffic jam that paralyzes the highways for, I don't know a week or so. And then everyone in the cars, be in need to have a kind of relationship with the other in the car in front or the other, and they need to find food, they need water, they need toilet whatever, and they organize themselves in life. They need to have friendly relationships, all kind of relationships, love, affairs, and everything. The tale is very short, but it's very beautiful. And the whole, let's say, civilization begins to be constructed and you see new system inside these cars, everyone is in their cars, but they are related too. And then suddenly, one day it begins to move.

When they begin to move, the car system will be in parallel, one and two have to speed with the others. And you lose your friend and your enemy goes away and you don't recognize anyone. And in 20 minutes, the whole construction of new ideas has disappeared completely. Everyone has to go home and that's it.

This is a wonderful tale to understand the moment, that we will all have an new efficient engene and everyone on this hopeful world will get along with all the countries of the world and not only for the rich ones. It will take minutes to forget. This is my opinion, because it's the humankind, I mean this is the mentality of humans. I mean, I we need to survive and we need to forget. This is one thing.

Cortázar是一位非常著名的阿根廷作家,他在几十年前去世了,他写了很多精彩的作品,其中非常著名的是《南方公路》(“the Southern Highway”)。我不知道用英语怎么说,这是关于巴黎南部的一场交通堵塞。这次堵塞使高速公路瘫痪,可能有一个星期左右。然后每个在车里的人,都需要和周围别的车里的人建立一种关系,他们需要找到食物、水、厕所等等,他们需要自己组织起生活,需要形成友好的关系,各种各样的关系,爱情,风流韵事,以及一切。故事很短,但很美。可以说,整个文明开始建立,你会看到这些车之间有一个新的系统,每个人都在自己的车里但又互相关联。



But the other response much more quick than this one, but this is good. I mean you have to read this Highway. It is a wonderful lesson of history. And the other one is one word, it is adaptation. As architects we need to know, we need to think about what has not worked well and how can we make it work better.

For example, residences for the elderly, the elderly in Spain lives in huge residences, in big hotels, I can say. What is it when the epidemic entered where are not doctors not medical care? We have a lot of dead people in residences for the elderly, a lot of deaths, it's a crime; it's a crime, a lot of them have passed away.

So, this I mean, they say doctors should come. I say no, we have to change the typology. We have to change it. I mean, can we put them like 3000 together? Or we can make pavilions and so if someone is sick, we can isolate this pavilion or these 20 people, and the rest can survive. This is a kind of typological problem, is very clear. This is what I said.




So instead of changing the form of the city which is very improbable, I think that we have to focus on what has worked badly, and how can we prove it as architect, because we have tools to improve and to make more niceties. But only we think the scale of means seeing a problem and resolving it, not to try and to change the city from one day to the other. This is my last response.


“I think that we have to focus on what has worked badly, and how can we prove it as architect, because we have tools to improve and to make more niceties. But only we think the scale of means seeing a problem and resolving it, not to try and to change the city from one day to the other.”

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王轶群 Yiqun, 高晨辰 (AS+)

高盛枫 Lisa Gao,秦瑜 Qin Yu,吴叶 Bella Wu

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何牧 Clara He,汪子京 Tommy Wang,曾迪 Di Zeng ,陈勇图 Toby Chan
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